Yes, 2P and 1P can coexist in the same canvas, but only in a very specific context.
1P only works when your line of vision matches up exactly with the alignment of the environment. You're looking straight down the end of a long tunnel, or exactly at the horizon at the end of train tracks, etc. As soon as you turn your head left or right, you're in 2P perspective now.
This is why the alignment of things in space with regards to your line of vision is the prime director of which perspective sub-case to use. In the strange scenario where you're looking through a paper tube at a street corner, the street corner (not aligned with your line-of-vision) is in 2P, but the paper tube itself (aligned with your line of vision) is in 1P.
In the example above, the only place where you can use 1P is if an object or box is centered in the image, and its vanishing point is central to the canvas. A box would look like a simple square, maybe with a visible top or bottom if it's far above or below the horizon.